Friday, May 22, 2020

Understanding Mass Media and Mass Communication

Mass media refers to the technologies used as channels for a small group of people to communicate with a larger number of people. The concept was first addressed during the Progressive Era of the 1920s, as a response to new opportunities for elites to reach large audiences via the mass media of the time: newspapers, radio, and film. Indeed, the three forms of traditional mass media today are still the same: print (newspapers, books, magazines), broadcast (television, radio), and cinema (movies and documentaries).  Ã‚   But in the 1920s, mass media referred not just to the number of people such communication reached, but rather to the uniform consumption and anonymity of the audiences. Uniformity and anonymity are characteristics which no longer fit the way people seek out, consume, and manipulate information into their daily lives. Those new media are called alternative media or mass self-communication. Key Takeaways: Mass Media Mass media as an idea was created in the 1920s.There are three major forms of traditional mass media: print, broadcast, and cinema. New forms are being created constantly.The internet has changed the nature of mass media by creating consumers who control and even create media of their own, and producers who can more easily track consumer responses.Being a smart consumer of media means exposing yourself to a variety of points of view, so that you can become more adept at recognizing subtle and not subtle forms of propaganda and bias. Mass Communication   Mass media are the transport forms of mass communication, which can be defined as the dissemination of messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to large and diverse audiences in an attempt to influence them in some way.   Five distinct stages of mass communication exist, according to American communication scholars Melvin DeFleur and Everette Dennis:   Professional communicators create various types of messages for presentation to individuals.The messages are disseminated in a quick and continuous manner through some form of mechanical media.The messages are received by a vast and diverse audience.The audience interprets these messages and gives them meaning.The audience is influenced or changed in some manner.   There are six widely acknowledged intended effects for mass media. The two best known are commercial advertising and political campaigns. Public service announcements have been developed to influence people on health issues such as smoking cessation or HIV testing. Mass media has been used (by the Nazi party in Germany in the 1920s, for example) to indoctrinate people in terms of government ideology. And mass media use sporting events such as the World Series, the World Cup Soccer, Wimbledon, and the Super Bowl, to act as a ritual event that users participate in. Measuring the Effects of Mass Media   Research on the impacts of mass media began in the 1920s and 1930s, with the rise of muckraking journalism—elites became concerned about the effects of investigative reporting in magazines such as McClures on political decision-making. Mass media became a prominent focus of study in the 1950s after television became widely available, and academic departments dedicated to communication studies were created. These early studies investigated the cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral effects of media on both children and adults; in the 1990s, researchers began to use those earlier studies to draw up theories concerning the use of media today. In the 1970s theorists such as Marshall McLuhan and Irving J. Rein warned that media critics needed to watch how media affects people. Today, this remains a key concern; much attention has been paid, for example, to the impact on the 2016 election of false messaging distributed on social media. But the myriad forms of mass communication available today have also encouraged some  researchers to begin to investigate what people do with media. The Move to Mass Self-Communication Traditional mass media are push technologies: that is to say, producers create the objects and distribute them (push it) to consumers who are largely anonymous to the producer. The only input consumers have in traditional mass media is to decide whether to consume it—if they should buy the book or go to the movie: undoubtedly those decisions have always been significant to what got published or aired.   However, in the 1980s, consumers began to transition to pull technology: while the content may still be created by (elite) producers, users are now free to select what they wish to consume. Further, users can now repackage and create new content (such as mashups on YouTube or reviews on personal blog sites). The users are often explicitly identified in the process, and their choices may have immediate, if not necessarily conscious, impact on what information and advertising they are presented with going forward.   With the widespread availability of the internet and the development of social media, communication consumption has a decidedly personal character, which the Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells calls mass self-communication. Mass self-communication means that the content is still created by the producers, and the distribution is made available to a large number of people, those who choose to read or consume the information. Today, users pick and choose media content to suit their needs, whether those needs were the intent of the producers or not.   Computer-Mediated Communication The study of mass media is a fast-moving target. People have studied computer-mediated communication since the technology first became available in the 1970s. Early studies focused on teleconferencing, and how interactions between large groups of strangers differ from interactions with known partners. Other studies were concerned with whether communication methods lacking nonverbal cues could influence the meaning and quality of social interactions. Today, people have access to both text-based and visual information, so those studies are no longer useful.   The immense growth in social applications since the start of Web 2.0 (also known as Participatory or Social Web) has made huge changes. Information is now distributed in many directions and methods, and audiences can vary from one person to many thousands. In addition, everyone with an internet connection can be a content creator and media source.   Blurring the Lines Between Producers and Consumers Mass self-communication can potentially reach a global audience, but it is self-generated in content, self-directed in its mission, and typically focuses on self-related information. Sociologist Alvin Toffler created the now-obsolete term of prosumers to describe users who are almost simultaneously consumers and producers—for example, reading and commenting on online content, or reading and replying to Twitter posts. The increases in the number of transactions that now occur between consumer and producer create what some have called an expression effect. Interactions also now cross-media streams, such as Social TV, where people use hashtags while watching a sports game or a television program in order to simultaneously read and converse with hundreds of other viewers on social media. Politics and the Media   One focus of mass communication research has been on the role that media plays in the democratic process. On the one hand, media provides a way for predominantly rational voters to obtain information about their political choices. That likely introduces some systematic biases, in that not every voter is interested in social media, and politicians may choose to work on the wrong issues and perhaps pander to an active set of users who may not be in their constituencies. But by and large, the fact that voters can learn about candidates independently is predominantly positive.   On the other hand, media can be leveraged for propaganda, which exploits cognitive errors that people are prone to make. By using the techniques of agenda-setting, priming, and framing, the producers of media can manipulate voters to act against their own best interests. Propaganda Techniques in Mass Media   Some types of propaganda that have been recognized in mass media include: Agenda-Setting: Aggressive media coverage of an issue can make people believe an insignificant issue is important. Similarly, media coverage may underplay an important issue.Priming: People evaluate politicians based on the issues covered in the press.Framing: How an issue is characterized in news reports can influence how it is understood by the receivers; involves the selective inclusion or omission of facts (bias). Sources DeFleur, Melvin L., and Everette E. Dennis. Understanding Mass Communication. (Fifth Edition, 1991). Houghton Mifflin: New York.  Donnerstein, Edward. Mass Media, General View. Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, Conflict (Second Edition). Ed. Kurtz, Lester. Oxford: Academic Press, 2008. 1184-92. Print.Gershon, Ilana. Language and the Newness of Media. Annual Review of Anthropology 46.1 (2017): 15-31. Print.Pennington, Robert. Mass Media Content as Cultural Theory. The Social Science Journal 49.1 (2012): 98-107. Print.Pinto, Sebastià ¡n, Pablo Balenzuela, and Claudio O. Dorso. Setting the Agenda: Different Strategies of a Mass Media in a Model of Cultural Dissemination. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 458 (2016): 378-90. Print.Rosenberry, J., Vicker, L. A. (2017). Applied Mass Communication Theory. New York: Routledge.Strà ¶mberg, David. Media and Politics. Annual Review of Economics 7.1 (2015): 173-205. Print.Valkenburg, Patti M., Jochen Peter, and Joseph B. Walther. Media Effects: Theory and Research. Annual Review of Psychology 67.1 (2016): 315-38. Print.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Search For Self-Acceptance in the Color Purple by...

If any woman had to answer if she ever had trouble accepting herself, the response would be yes. According to Susan David, â€Å"All healthy human beings have an inner stream of thoughts and feelings that include criticism, doubt, and fear† (125-128). Depending on the person Alice Walker has as the recipients of Celie’s and Nettie’s letters, the text alters. The Color Purple is about a girl named Celie, who grows up in the south during the early 1920’s, surrounded by racism, sexism, and abuse from her father and husband. Alice Walker wrote The Color Purple in epistolary style and it traces Celie’s journey of finding her identity and path of finally accepting herself. On her journey she encounters a couple of women including one named Shug†¦show more content†¦It all I can do not cry. i make myself wood. I say to myself, Celie, your a tree. Thats how come I know trees fear man (Walker 23). Mr.___, who is a violent, controlling husband, treat s Celie as a child and causes her to believe she is powerless. As a result of these tragic events, Celie writes to an unknown audience, resembling her unknown identity. In the beginning, the only person she can talk to is God. She writes her first letters to God shortly after her so-called father raped her. Each one of the letters is short, choppy and has a similar rhythm. The patterns found in her letters symbolize her state of mind; she feels depressed and weak. Celie does not think of her letters as anything else than just that, as written documents saying the things she wishes to tell the recipients she cannot speak to in person†, making God the person she has always wished to communicate with (Boynukara). Her letters in the beginning are also mostly written to God and not signed off, illustrating her lack of identity. Her conception of God is a â€Å"Big and old and tall and graybearded and white. He wear white robes and go barefooted† (Walker 195). Celie’s first letter proves that she has a low self-confidence when she writes, Dear God, I am fourteen years old. I am I have always been a good girl. Maybe you can give me a sign letting me know what is happening to me. (1). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Basic Skills Test Free Essays

While growing up we have ideas about what we want to do with our life when we graduate from high school. These decisions include: going to college, picking a major, and figuring out where you want to go after college. I wanted to go to Western Illinois University and declare a major in the elementary education program because Western Illinois has a good teacher education program. We will write a custom essay sample on Basic Skills Test or any similar topic only for you Order Now I always wanted to become a teacher since I was a little girl, because my first grade teacher has inspired me to become a wonderful educator. One of the requirements for education majors is to take the Illinois certification test, which is the Basic Skills test. The Basic Skills test is a certified test that is composed in variety of subjects that an educator needs to know before getting a teacher’s certificate. In order to be approved for teaching in the state of Illinois, you must pass this test. Furthermore, should the Basic Skills be considered a requirement into the education program? According to the Chicago Sun-Times, in 2010 Linda Tomlinson, Assistant Superintendent at the State Board of Education, said, â€Å"some would-be teachers have failed the current test at least 20 times†. However, recent changes now give teaching candidates only five chances to pass (Rossi Rosalind, Chicago Sun Times). I know now that I was not the only one who did not pass the Basic Skills test the first time. Whenever I hear how important this test is from my advisor and even from other education majors around me, I get nervous. Testing is required of candidates seeking an Illinois teaching license since 1988. The only way I can continue in education next semester is to pass the test. After reading this article, I am afraid I won’t be able to major in education anymore because of lack of test-taking skills. I’m not a good test taker because of test anxiety which includes time, forgetting the information, and getting nervous before the big test. If I fail the Basic Skills test a third time, I might have to consider changing my major. I do not want to change my major, because I know I would enjoy teaching very much. If you do not pass the test after five times, you are not allowed to teach in the state of Illinois. According to the Chicago Tribune, in 2011 an unknown â€Å"reporter† said; â€Å"No, we’re not rooting for aspiring educators to fail. But we are rooting to see only the best candidates become teachers† (Chicago Tribune). As a future educator, I am opposed to this idea that college students are not becoming teachers because they are failing the Basic Skills. The statistics that updated each year from different universities are losing students who want to become future educators. Taking the Basic Skills test for future educators is harder than you think it would be; because you need to have the knowledge of a future educator when taking this type of state assessment. Most college students have to make a decision about backup plans after realizing that they didn’t pass the test. It would be disappointment knowing that you worked hard, you are halfway through college, and now you can’t continue with your major. I think that the state board of education should rethink the testing procedures because there is more to teaching than just being able to pass the test. For example, future educators can get observed by their work of teaching, have an interview process about the literacy of teaching, and many other kinds of processes that could be established in a college setting to prepare students to become excellent educators. The Basic Skills is one of the most important tests that future educators have seen, taken, or studied for. As a first time test-taker, our job is to research what the test is all about, what is the Basic Skills? More importantly, what is a test? Some people can say that a test is a series of questions that tests our knowledge; or a test can be defined, â€Å"as a particular process or method for trying or assessing (â€Å"Oxford English Dictionary†). † The Basic Skills is a test where you get certification to teach in the state of Illinois. The test considers four different sub sections reading, language arts, mathematics, and writing (Illinois Leisure Testing System). The results I’ve heard from my advisor, and researching some statistics from other Illinois school; there are many future educators who have failed the Basic Skills. Because of that, they are out of the teacher education program. The teacher education program is based on a series of tasks that are required to be pass before moving onto the next level (Jeanne Gage, Advisor). Some of the tasks to be considered are: passing major course classes in college, writing a reflective paper, and aving test taking skills. Returning to the certification process, I ask myself what is certification? Is there a certification just like the Basic Skills? Certification means â€Å"an official document attesting a certain fact, in particular† (Oxford English Dictionary). There are many different types of certification from ownership, achievement, and marriages. For the Basic Skills it’s considered an achievement certification. Teacher certification is known as â€Å"document of proof† that a teacher can use to become a teacher in a school setting. Anyone can take this test and get a teaching certification. You may think that a certification can be easy, as it seems; but not a certification that requires testing abilities and some college classwork. Just like taking your driver’s test to get your license to drive, the teaching certification requires a series of test questions relating to a common course setting and some basic skill methods you learned in school. You may wonder if any other profession has a similar test like the educators do. Lets take a future college student who wants to become a lawyer and what kind of test that he or she would have to take. In research, if a student wants to become a lawyer in the state of his or her choice. The student must take the Bar examination to become a certified lawyer. What is a Bar examination? The Bar examination is a rigid test of knowledge in all fields of law (Illinois State Bar Association). Just like the Basic Skills for educators, the future lawyers have to prepare in a similar fashion to future educators. The difference is the educator is tested in reading, language arts, math, and writing; while the lawyer has to know the different aspects of law that exist today. Another example is a college student who wants to get into the nursing program. All students who want to become a nurse have to take the HESI exam in order to be certified as a nurse. What is the HESI exam? The Health Education Systems Inc. is a timed, computerized test that consists of six academic exams: reading comprehension, vocabulary and general knowledge, grammar, basic math skills, biology and anatomy, and physiology (TMCC). This test is similar to the Basic Skills, but has only two extra subjects that need to be taken. No matter if you’re an educator, a lawyer, or a nursing major there is a test for every type of career that is required to be passed. In the beginning of my research, I have found that many future educators have not passed the Basic Skills. When I thought about how these future educators have not completed the Basic Skills; there should be an alternative process and still become an educator. What would be the opposite of a certificate? I have found no answer to this question: but, in my opinion an optional choice for certification for educators should be this. They should be able to pass all major college courses with a B or above. If a student can be able to get all of their classes passed with this requirement, they can be able to teach after college. Why is the Basic Skills the best way to certify our future educators? Is the state board making the best choice for every future educator? The Basic Skills is the best way to certify our future educators so that each individual should be able to understand the concepts when put into a classroom full of students. Without taking this test, the future educators won’t know what is supposed to be taught when it comes to teaching. For example, if a future educator hasn’t looked at the test, they wouldn’t be able to understand the concepts that are being tested. The state board is making the best choice to have future educators take this test; they need to know if they are the best educators. If we had poor educators, then how would our future students be able to learn their basic skills the correct way? How does the Basic Skills test accomplish its goals? According to the Oxford English Dictionary the definitions of accomplish is known â€Å"as achieve or complete successfully. Oxford English Dictionary)† The purpose of this test is to have future educators be able to accomplish the main standards in Illinois. As of October-December of 2012 only 31 percent out of 3,153 test takers have passed the Basic Skills (Illinois State Board of Education). It is a disappointment that we can’t get more than 31 percent to pass this test. In more depth, from September 2008-August 2011 at Western Illinois University 1,823 students have attempted the test; with having 1,777 students passed the test. But, at Eastern Illinois University 3,910 students have attempted; 3,773 have passed the test (Illinois State Board of Education). Since we don’t want any future educators to fail the Basic Skills, we don’t want to bring down the teacher rate in the near future. The question that we should think about is, should we keep the Basic Skills test or have another option into getting a certification in the State of Illinois? People may wonder if this Basic Skills test has a cost. There is a fee that requires to be paid in order to take the Basic Skills. For example, the Basic Skills test costs about $120 and each different sub section costs about $99. If one future educator has not passed any of the sub sections, they are required to repay $120. If another future educator only passed three of the sub sections, they only have to pay $99 (Illinois Leisure Testing System). I think that it’s ridiculous because we future educators can’t afford these prices, and we cannot afford to buy another examination test. With the economy being a problem in our society, how are we supposed to take a test that costs too much money? This is considered one issue about the Basic Skills and should be reconsidered for future educators. Throughout many generations, a future educator has been through many different processes of becoming a teacher. Recently, to get into the education program, future educators have to take the Basic Skills test to be determined if they are considered an educator. My question I like to consider, how did past future educators become certify as educators? Did they have to take the Basic Skills many years ago? Did they have a whole different certification process compare to what we have today? From my research, I’ve found out many interesting facts on how future educators were certify in past. New Jersey examinees had to take a written examination and receive a high rating in order to get certified in 1983. New Jersey educators would have to write a long essay on what they would be considered for the teaching job; skills, ability, lesson planning, etc. Other than taking the written portion they also accept the state examination that is considered the basic skills; the only difference compared to 1983 is they only had a writing portion instead of multiple assessments and know that they are willing to take the step up in the classroom management developmental process. It’s considered as a student’s choice in New Jersey whether these future educators want to take a huge writing portion and also decide to take the Basic Skills as an optional choice. Another state that I found interesting in the same period is known as the sunny state of Florida. In this journal a debate was in progress on whether the basic skills should be determined as a minimum competency scoring level or have a more higher education and pass a type of GED test that can be require for a certification. Since testing was huge in Florida, college students had the option to become educators but they were the ones to determine their future. This journal has been dated back in 1983 when there was a debate on whether future educators should have an option of choosing a simple exam compare to more of a challenging exam (Florida’s Minimum Competency Program: A Survey of Teacher’s Options). In this journal there are some evaluations charts that show the results of what the future educators consider as a new requirement. For example, â€Å"the Minimum Competency approach will probably result in minimum skills becoming maximum skills†; voters of education majors have marked this type of debate as 37. % agreement, 16% neither, and 46. 3% disagreement. (Florida’s Minimum Competency Program: A Survey of Teachers’ Opinions) The vote and other ballots have determined efficiency on how teaching requirements could be changed in 1983 (Florida Minimum Competency Program). These ratings/charts can be found on this journal if you need more information on how the voting process has worked and an explanat ion on each debate. California, a state providing a large portion of the nations educators, recently had a survey attempting to better understand how educators are assessed. Most of these cases came from interviews, standardized tests, and most importantly how they contributed in a classroom setting (Teacher’s Perspective on Competency-Based Testing). With the different types of observations that were made among the future educators and their observers; the information that was given by the observer, are put into a chart to determined the typical requirements for a California teaching license. Some of the information presented in these charts are what scores each observer have, the percentage of determination, and lastly if they are qualified for the teaching certificate. There is also more information on how the certification process and even some recommendations that can be used for future educators in 1991 (Teacher’s Perspective on Competency-Based Testing). In the state of Illinois there are requirements for a teacher certification from 1919. If you were to become an educator, you had to follow a credit system that is given to you at the beginning of your application fee. A credit system is the based amount of points that you will receive after completing each task. Indeed, back in 1919 you were supposed to fill out an application and pay a small fee in order to begin your application into the field of education. There are also certain sub-sections that are require to be accomplished in order to receive a certification. For example, 35 points for successful teaching, 30 points for attending at the annual institute, 8 points for attending eight one-hour at the superintendent board of education meetings, and there is also many other requirements that are needed to receive the points towards a teacher certificate (Certification of Teachers in Illinois). In my opinion, getting a teacher certification seems pretty easy when you lived back in 1919; because you only have to follow a credit system and not take any kind of assessments that is presented in Illinois today. Most importantly I wish that this could be a permanent option instead of taking the basic skills test for the state of Illinois. No matter what state you’re determined to live in, there is a certain way that there will be a certification test for any future educator. As of today, all fifty states including the state of Illinois are required to take the Basic Skills test in order to become certified as an Illinois teacher. A question to be considered should it be easy to become a teacher? Or would many college students have to rethink of a new major before coming into college? The Basic Skills test is a required test taken by students wanting to become educators. The Basic Skills test is an examination that consists of reading, language arts, math, and writing. These future educators would have to take this examination before moving on into their method courses. In most research, students have failed the Basic Skills test the first time they took it (JSTOR, Google, ERIC). For example, only 31 percent of all test takers have passed while the other 69 percent are still struggling in the state of Illinois (Illinois State Board of Education). There are many resources online including: Illinois Leisure Testing, Test Prep Review, and also some other University websites that can help students to prepare for the Basic Skills. I’ve used all of these websites to help me get some preparations done for the big test date and they are very helpful. There are also preparation classes that are offered in selected universities taught by professors involved in education. Some classes includes: introduction to the Basic Skills, classes for each of the sub section of the test, and just some classes that have tutors who already passed the Basic Skills to help other students. Western Illinois University offers these classes each semester along with Eastern Illinois University, University of Illinois Champaign, and University Illinois Chicago. Recently, the Illinois state board of education allows you to take the ACT instead of the Basic Skills. There are also preparation classes that are offered around the community and online just for the ACT. Taking down some evaluations of future educators, they say that these prep classes work because they have passed the test with the extra help. Many of these resources can help students become more familiar with the test and also have a refresher on many of the subjects that being tested in each of the examinations. Many future educators have failed the Basic Skills and have to decide what to do to not make the same mistakes. Recently, there are many different types of online preparation including study guides, helpful hints, and a practice test to help future educators can get more practice with the test format, or even on a single sub section that he or she needs more help on. These preparation courses are huge among students who want to become educators after graduation. Many of these programs include: Pearson and Stanford Excellence. These companies have come up with completed study guides and some helpful tips when it comes to test day. Google is also another source to look up preparation materials for the test; and it’s very helpful for those who are in danger to pass the test. Cost is considered another reason why many future educators are frustrated over the examination. Do you remember when I mentioned how much a test cost for potential new educator; it costs more than buying a week worth of groceries if you think of it. Many institutions are working on making free preparation classes for students who are in need of practice for the Basic Skills. This semester at Western Illinois University, the education department has taken time to ask many professors to coordinate free preparation classes for students in need of math, reading, and language arts. Not only Western Illinois University has to offer these preparation classes, but many other institutions including: Eastern Illinois University, Illinois State University, and University of Illinois in Champaign. These universities have taken their time to offer classes that can help future educators pass the Basic Skills before moving on into the next step of the career. Besides all of the preparation courses that are offered at institutions, I have taken some time to look at some of the other states in our country regarding about the Basic Skills. California has a policy that students can take an alternative procedure of the Basic Skills and still get into the teacher education program. This policy is considered of having an early alternative admission plan; where students can still take most of their classes and get a low score on their examination (Coping with the CBEST: Alternative and Inclusive Approaches). Unfortunately, as of today this process has been removed from the California State Board of Education; because the State Board has decided to become familiar with a Basic Skills test just like all of the states are doing for their teacher requirements. In my opinion I wish that this process would take over the new requirements for becoming an educator; because if students would like to take classes early and remove their scores from the system. They will be able to get their teacher certification within a breeze of time. Recently in the state of Illinois, the State Board of Education has approved n alternative test arrangement for students who do not want to take the Basic Skills. Every student should know when applying for colleges during their senior year of high school, they have to take the ACT. But, educators can retake their ACT and pass it with a 22 to bypass the Basic Skills. Another option includes the SAT and educators would have to get a score of 1030. Both of these examin ations are required to be less than ten years old from the test date and must include the writing portion of the examination (Illinois Administrative Rule Change). This portion of the certification process can help students who had a hard time with the Basic Skills and be able to take the examinations for less than half the cost of the Basic Skills. The Basic Skills test is a require examination that students have to take before they are educators. In this essay alone, I have found many interesting facts regarding to the Basic Skills within the state of Illinois and even a few other states. Including some of the history, facts, and solutions about this examination. I also hope that this work will help not only myself, but for future educators that are willing to go into the teacher education program. The only way to be able to succeed in the teacher education program is to be able to prepare future educators with this examination. Especially with the solutions I provided in this essay, it should be very helpful to many college students not only around the state of Illinois; but the other 49 states that are involved in this process. The Basic Skills is a required examination, and it’s one of the most important steps in the teaching career. How to cite Basic Skills Test, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Japanese Internment Essays - Japanese American Internment

Japanese Internment Japanese Internment: Will We Ever Know The Truth? Would The Truth Make It Moral? In 1942, 120,000 Japanese-Americans were relocated to areas far from their homes, out of the fear the United States Government held inside their hearts. Japan had just bombed Pearl Harbor. Many of the U.S. seaport areas on the West coast were inhabited by Japanese-Americans. General DeWitt provided a security plan for both United States citizens (Caucasian) and the Japanese-Americans...or so it was stated. However, when seeking the fine details of this incident, will we ever know the absolute truth? The Official Government documents drastically contrast the first-hand accounts of what it was like in those Pioneer Communities. Each source changes the story behind the Japanese-American Internment slightly. Can truth truly exist once it becomes a part of the past? By looking at both governmental and personal accounts of the Internment, only small similarities carry throughout. In the Instructions to All Persons of Japanese Ancestry, John L. DeWitt, lieutenant general of the Western Defense Command, posted on April 30th, 1942, instructed all Japanese descendants, whether born inside or outside of the United States that they were not to change residences after 12:00 PM on this very day, and that all would be evacuated from their homes no later than May 7th, 1942 - only one week later. There were no reasons behind this evacuation, and there were no explanations as to what was going to happen after such an evacuation. Thorough plans for preparation were provided, such as the offering of assistance from the Civil Control Station to help sell or dispose of all personal or business property, and to provide temporary residence for all Japanese in family groups. The instructions on this evacuation were very precise, and did not allow for any compromise: THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE OBSERVED: ...2. Evacuees must carry with them on departure for the Assembly Center, the following property: (a) Bedding and linens (no mattress) for each member of the family; (b) Toilet articles for each member of the family; (c) Extra clothing for each member of the family; (d) Sufficient knives, forks, spoons, plates, bowls, and cups for each member of the family... As is obvious, it seemed the government had a very specific plan in mind for these thousands of Japanese-Americans. But no reasoning was offered to the victims of this plan. Each citizen and alien (Non-American born Japanese were not allowed to become citizens - evidence of previous racism against those of Asian background) were expected to fully accept and obey what the government had expected of them. Most of them did. It was a trust of the government - it was the center of everything, and the President and his men held a great deal of respect - and the government officials must have had sufficient reason for doing such a thing to its people. We know now that this relocation and evacuation was immoral, deceitful, and practically criminal. But in the 1940s, it was somehow accepted. The instructions also included, not just what they were to bring, but also what NOT to bring. No pets of an kind...no personal items and no household goods.... The government only allowed for the Japanese-Americans to bring necessities. Nothing that would provide them with any of the comforts of home. Perhaps some thought the government would provide them these sorts of amenities once they arrived wherever it was that they were going. But they left it all behind. It is easy to look into this occurrence now, with hate and wagging fingers, knowing that even the government which initiated such a situation has taken blame and admittance for such a wrongdoing. In the eyes, minds, and hearts of those involved in the situation and around it, it must have been a very different situation. In a news reel from 1942, reported by Milton Eisenhower, these camps of untamed lands and pioneer communities seemed like ample opportunities for the Japanese-Americans which were being moved there. The government was depicted as working quickly to provide safety for Japanese descendants from the war-affected Americans that may become violent towards them, and that they were busy ensuring that the Japanese had everything that they would need for as long as they were there. The Japanese were depicted as curious about their new surroundings, though the film showed rather frightened-looking humans with slumped shoulders and withdrawn souls. Nothing about them looked curious, however Im sure some were - regarding when they could go home again. The government, particularly Milton Eisenhower in this film,

Thursday, March 19, 2020

7 Great Websites for Writers

7 Great Websites for Writers 7 Great Websites for Writers 7 Great Websites for Writers By Mark Nichol From usual suspects to obscure gems, from grammar guides to usage resources, here are some websites of great value to writers: 1. Amazon.com You may have heard of this website a good place, I understand, to find books (or anything else manufactured). But what I appreciate even more is the â€Å"Search inside this book† link under the image of the book cover on most pages in the Books section. No longer does one need to own a book or go to a bookstore or a library to thumb through it in search of that name or bon mot or expression you can’t quite remember. And even if you do have access to the book in question, it’s easier to search online (assuming you have a keyword in mind that’s proximal in location or locution to your evasive prey) than to try to remember on what part of what page in what part of the book you remember seeing something last week or last month or years ago. And then, of course, there are the site’s â€Å"Frequently Bought Together† and â€Å"Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought† features but the book search can be a writer’s salvation. 2. Banned for Life Newspaper editor Tom Mangan’s site lists reader contributions of clichà ©s and redundancies. 3. The Chicago Manual of Style Online My review on this site of The Chicago Manual of Style notes that buying the bulky book, despite its abundance of useful information, is overkill for writers (but not editors), but editorial professionals of all kinds will benefit from the CMOS website’s Style QA feature, which responds authoritatively, sensibly, and often humorously to visitors’ queries. 4. GrammarBook.com The late Jane Straus, author of The Blue Book on Grammar and Punctuation, created this site to promote her book, but it also features many simple grammar lessons (with quizzes), as well as video lessons, an e-newsletter, and blog entries that discuss various grammar topics. 5. The Phrase Finder A useful key to proverbs, phrases from the Bible and Shakespeare, nautical expressions, and American idiom (the site originates in the United Kingdom), plus a feature called â€Å"Famous Last Words† and, for about $50 a year, subscription to a phrase thesaurus. (Subscribers include many well-known media companies and other businesses as well as universities.) 6. The Vocabula Review The Principal Web Destination for Anyone Interested in Words and Language Essays about language and usage; $25 per year by email, $35 for the print version. 7. The Word Detective Words and Language in a Humorous Vein on the Web Since 1995 This online version of Evan Morris’s newspaper column of the same name (some were also published in the book The Word Detective) features humorous QA entries about word origins. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What Does [sic] Mean?Using the Active Voice to Strengthen Your WritingShow, Don't Tell

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Term Paper on Cholesterol and Lipids

Term Paper on Cholesterol and Lipids Term Paper on Cholesterol and Lipids Term Paper on Cholesterol and Lipids Need a good sample term paper on cholesterol and lipids? unites thousands of students from all over the world and native English language speakers. If you need individual help with writing, do not hesitate to use our custom term paper writing service. You may also check our free paper blog and look through our free term paper samples! Our writers can handle any term paper topic and deliver a professionally written term paper before deadline! Sample Term Paper on Cholesterol Abnormal liver tests consist of mild-to-moderate elevations of ALT and AST but marked elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels, reflecting interference with bile drainage. This pattern is also seen in other forms of obstruction to bile flow, and these must be ruled out when PBC is considered. Cholesterol and lipids cannot be secreted normally for the same reason and accumulate in the blood. Serum gammaglobulin levels are variably elevated. In PBC, it is the IgM type that are characteristically (but not invariably) increased. In this disease, the IgM globulins never become IgG type, as is true in infectious diseases. Serum bilirubin is not elevated until late in the disease. Liver biopsy is often necessary to differentiate this disease from several others that can be accompanied by similar liver test abnormalities. The destruction of small bile ducts can be recognized under the microscope, as can other findings associated with this disease. Fibrosis is present in variable amounts. Cirrhosis may be present when PBC is first discovered. Unfortunately, treatment of PBC is not satisfactory. Corticosteroids and azathioprine have been prospectively evaluated and found to have little effect. The former worsens the bone disease known to be present and thus is not used. Another drug that suppresses the immune system, methotrexate, has been used in an experimental setting with only moderate and largely unsatisfactory effectiveness. At the present time, it appears that only the synthetic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (Actigall or Ursodiol) delays progression of this disease. It is given as tablets in divided doses for a total dose of 900 to 1000 mg. per day. Vitamin D and calcium supplements are advisable, because, in this disease and for unclear reasons, the metabolism of ingested vitamin D by the diseased liver is deficient. It has been observed that the resulting bone disease seen in PBC can be prevented by ingestion of this vitamin. Prognosis of PBC varies. Some patients never develop cirrhosis, while in others it progresses relatively rapidly. Liver tests are closely monitored. When the serum bilirubin becomes elevated and is consistently above a level of 3 mg/dL, evaluation for liver transplantation is recommended. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is considered to be another form of autoimmune hepatitis of the liver, although the underlying mechanism has not been definitively identified. It is characterized by inflammation in multiple scattered areas of larger bile ducts, in contrast to PBC, in which the smallest ducts are attacked.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Important Changes in European Societies that Influence Politics in Essay

Important Changes in European Societies that Influence Politics in Europe - Essay Example This essay offers a comprehensive review of major changes in European societies in different fields of human life. Their summing impact on change of politics of the EU is assessed in the paper. A new political union was developed by the countries of Western Europe. Europe is made up made up of regions with varying historical backgrounds. The nations making up Europe have different cultural backgrounds too. Various factors have led to division of Europe into autonomous entities, the economic factors, the religion factors and the political factors. The cultural unity that has put European nations together has not yet disappeared despite of the registered transformations. Europe especially the western side has experience increases in immigration cases. Most of the people come from the less developed part of the world especially North Africa due its close proximity to Europe. More people are also moving from central and Eastern Europe towards the western side of Europe. The role of men and women has continued to change in the European society. Initially, male education was considered more superior than educating women. Gender is considered as one of the new cleavage in the current societies. It has been found out that more women are currently employed in the highly paying jobs. However, their earning is considered lower compared to the men’s salaries. Unity has continued to exist among the countries that make up the European Union. Europe remains home to most of the industries in the world.